馃 Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia

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Collected Wisdom of Game AI Professionals Steven Rabin Just because two characters have mutually high friendly feelings towards each other does not.


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artificial intelligence movie characters.


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Existential risk 路 Turing test 路 Chinese room 路 Control problem 路 Friendly AI 路 History[show]. Timeline 路 Progress 路 AI winter. Technology[show]. Applications 路 Projects 路 Programming languages. Glossary[show]. Glossary 路 v 路 t 路 e. In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, For instance, optical character recognition is.


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always had goofy, friendly droids. With the arrival of Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, though, things took a turn. K-2SO's artificial intelligence is dry and biting.


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always had goofy, friendly droids. With the arrival of Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, though, things took a turn. K-2SO's artificial intelligence is dry and biting.


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always had goofy, friendly droids. With the arrival of Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, though, things took a turn. K-2SO's artificial intelligence is dry and biting.


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Artificial Intelligence isn't always a crapshoot; sometimes an AI comes into being in a robot/independent body, and b) are the assistants of human characters.


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Collected Wisdom of Game AI Professionals Steven Rabin Just because two characters have mutually high friendly feelings towards each other does not.


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Collected Wisdom of Game AI Professionals Steven Rabin Just because two characters have mutually high friendly feelings towards each other does not.


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always had goofy, friendly droids. With the arrival of Rogue One: A Star Wars Story, though, things took a turn. K-2SO's artificial intelligence is dry and biting.


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The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing 's theory of computation , which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction. Clark also presents factual data indicating the improvements of AI since supported by lower error rates in image processing tasks. Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. In addition, some projects attempt to gather the "commonsense knowledge" known to the average person into a database containing extensive knowledge about the world. A simple example of an algorithm is the following optimal for first player recipe for play at tic-tac-toe : [66]. Learning algorithms work on the basis that strategies, algorithms, and inferences that worked well in the past are likely to continue working well in the future. Natural language processing [] NLP allows machines to read and understand human language. Machine learning ML , a fundamental concept of AI research since the field's inception, [] is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. What would have been otherwise straightforward, an equivalently difficult problem may be challenging to solve computationally as opposed to using the human mind. Among the things a comprehensive commonsense knowledge base would contain are: objects, properties, categories and relations between objects; [91] situations, events, states and time; [92] causes and effects; [93] knowledge about knowledge what we know about what other people know ; [94] and many other, less well researched domains. This enables even young children to easily make inferences like "If I roll this pen off a table, it will fall on the floor". By , the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. In , a Jeopardy! A sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would enable natural-language user interfaces and the acquisition of knowledge directly from human-written sources, such as newswire texts. Progress slowed and in , in response to the criticism of Sir James Lighthill [41] and ongoing pressure from the US Congress to fund more productive projects, both the U. For example, existing self-driving cars cannot reason about the location nor the intentions of pedestrians in the exact way that humans do, and instead must use non-human modes of reasoning to avoid accidents. Such input is usually ambiguous; a giant, fifty-meter-tall pedestrian far away may produce the same pixels as a nearby normal-sized pedestrian, requiring the AI to judge the relative likelihood and reasonableness of different interpretations, for example by using its "object model" to assess that fifty-meter pedestrians do not exist. Computational learning theory can assess learners by computational complexity , by sample complexity how much data is required , or by other notions of optimization. Motion planning is the process of breaking down a movement task into "primitives" such as individual joint movements.{/INSERTKEYS}{/PARAGRAPH} Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in , and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, [10] [11] followed by disappointment and the loss of funding known as an " AI winter " , [12] [13] followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. The agent uses this sequence of rewards and punishments to form a strategy for operating in its problem space. The AI field draws upon computer science , information engineering , mathematics , psychology , linguistics , philosophy , and many other fields. Humans also have a powerful mechanism of " folk psychology " that helps them to interpret natural-language sentences such as "The city councilmen refused the demonstrators a permit because they advocated violence". The general problem of simulating or creating intelligence has been broken down into sub-problems. Applications include speech recognition , [] facial recognition , and object recognition. This gives rise to two classes of models: structuralist and functionalist. Machine perception [] is the ability to use input from sensors such as cameras visible spectrum or infrared , microphones, wireless signals, and active lidar , sonar, radar, and tactile sensors to deduce aspects of the world. Classification is used to determine what category something belongs in, and occurs after a program sees a number of examples of things from several categories. The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". If the AI is programmed for " reinforcement learning ", goals can be implicitly induced by rewarding some types of behavior or punishing others. Rossum's Universal Robots. In the late s and early 21st century, AI began to be used for logistics, data mining , medical diagnosis and other areas. Computer science defines AI research as the study of " intelligent agents ": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Settling on a bad, overly complex theory gerrymandered to fit all the past training data is known as overfitting. A typical AI analyzes its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success. A toy example is that an image classifier trained only on pictures of brown horses and black cats might conclude that all brown patches are likely to be horses. The semantics of these are captured as description logic concepts, roles, and individuals, and typically implemented as classes, properties, and individuals in the Web Ontology Language. For instance, the human mind has come up with ways to reason beyond measure and logical explanations to different occurrences in life. The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in , [32] where the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy to distinguish the field from cybernetics and escape the influence of the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener. The overall research goal of artificial intelligence is to create technology that allows computers and machines to function in an intelligent manner. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of " intelligent agents ": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. The next few years would later be called an " AI winter ", [12] a period when obtaining funding for AI projects was difficult. As machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are often removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. Regression is the attempt to produce a function that describes the relationship between inputs and outputs and predicts how the outputs should change as the inputs change. Multi-agent planning uses the cooperation and competition of many agents to achieve a given goal. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval , text mining , question answering [] and machine translation. Supervised learning includes both classification and numerical regression , which requires a human to label the input data first. A generic AI has difficulty discerning whether the ones alleged to be advocating violence are the councilmen or the demonstrators. The cognitive capabilities of current architectures are very limited, using only a simplified version of what intelligence is really capable of. The study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. AI often revolves around the use of algorithms. Emergent behavior such as this is used by evolutionary algorithms and swarm intelligence. {PARAGRAPH}{INSERTKEYS}In computer science , artificial intelligence AI , sometimes called machine intelligence , is intelligence demonstrated by machines , unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Turing proposed changing the question from whether a machine was intelligent, to "whether or not it is possible for machinery to show intelligent behaviour". The functional model refers to the correlating data to its computed counterpart. These four main approaches can overlap with each other and with evolutionary systems; for example, neural nets can learn to make inferences, to generalize, and to make analogies. Therefore, according to Occam's razor principle, a learner must be designed such that it prefers simpler theories to complex theories, except in cases where the complex theory is proven substantially better. Faintly superimposing such a pattern on a legitimate image results in an "adversarial" image that the system misclassifies. Modern statistical NLP approaches can combine all these strategies as well as others, and often achieve acceptable accuracy at the page or paragraph level. This calls for an agent that can not only assess its environment and make predictions but also evaluate its predictions and adapt based on its assessment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power , large amounts of data , and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry , helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research. Some systems implicitly or explicitly use multiple of these approaches, alongside many other AI and non-AI algorithms; the best approach is often different depending on the problem. At the same time, Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U. This insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church鈥擳uring thesis. In classical planning problems, the agent can assume that it is the only system acting in the world, allowing the agent to be certain of the consequences of its actions. Much of AI research involves figuring out how to identify and avoid considering a broad range of possibilities unlikely to be beneficial. A second, more general, approach is Bayesian inference : "If the current patient has a fever, adjust the probability they have influenza in such-and-such way". The structural models aim to loosely mimic the basic intelligence operations of the mind such as reasoning and logic. The traits described below have received the most attention. S and British governments to restore funding for academic research. In the early s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems , [42] a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts. A fourth approach is harder to intuitively understand, but is inspired by how the brain's machinery works: the artificial neural network approach uses artificial " neurons " that can learn by comparing itself to the desired output and altering the strengths of the connections between its internal neurons to "reinforce" connections that seemed to be useful. Some "expert systems" attempt to gather explicit knowledge possessed by experts in some narrow domain. Early researchers developed algorithms that imitated step-by-step reasoning that humans use when they solve puzzles or make logical deductions. An algorithm is a set of unambiguous instructions that a mechanical computer can execute. They solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgments. These issues have been explored by myth , fiction and philosophy since antiquity. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers expect an intelligent system to display. Goals can be explicitly defined or induced. The earliest and easiest to understand approach to AI was symbolism such as formal logic : "If an otherwise healthy adult has a fever, then they may have influenza ". Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization , artificial neural networks , and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. In practice, it is seldom possible to consider every possibility, because of the phenomenon of " combinatorial explosion ", where the time needed to solve a problem grows exponentially. Some of the "learners" described below, including Bayesian networks, decision trees, and nearest-neighbor, could theoretically, given infinite data, time, and memory learn to approximate any function , including which combination of mathematical functions would best describe the world [ citation needed ]. Many systems attempt to reduce overfitting by rewarding a theory in accordance with how well it fits the data, but penalizing the theory in accordance with how complex the theory is. The traditional problems or goals of AI research include reasoning , knowledge representation , planning , learning , natural language processing , perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. Knowledge representation [89] and knowledge engineering [90] are central to classical AI research. AI is heavily used in robotics. These inferences can be obvious, such as "since the sun rose every morning for the last 10, days, it will probably rise tomorrow morning as well". Mead and Mohammed Ismail. A representation of "what exists" is an ontology : the set of objects, relations, concepts, and properties formally described so that software agents can interpret them. These algorithms proved to be insufficient for solving large reasoning problems because they experienced a "combinatorial explosion": they became exponentially slower as the problems grew larger. Unsupervised learning is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input, without requiring a human to label the inputs first. Such formal knowledge representations can be used in content-based indexing and retrieval, [97] scene interpretation, [98] clinical decision support, [99] knowledge discovery mining "interesting" and actionable inferences from large databases , [] and other areas. These learners could therefore derive all possible knowledge, by considering every possible hypothesis and matching them against the data. According to Bloomberg's Jack Clark, was a landmark year for artificial intelligence, with the number of software projects that use AI Google increased from a "sporadic usage" in to more than 2, projects. Learners also work on the basis of " Occam's razor ": The simplest theory that explains the data is the likeliest. Many AI algorithms are capable of learning from data; they can enhance themselves by learning new heuristics strategies, or "rules of thumb", that have worked well in the past , or can themselves write other algorithms. Marvin Minsky agreed, writing, "within a generation They failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the remaining tasks.